Bone Broth: Thoughts and Techniques

Recently, I jumped on the bone broth wagon. Whilst going through difficult emotions in my personal life this winter, I had an intense craving for broth. The warm, fatty, nutrient dense liquid commonly associated with colds or the flu, became a daily routine.

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It’s a grainy photo, but… check out the layer of fat on top!

Few scientific studies have focused on bone broth. The evidence is lacking as to whether bone broth is a reliable treatment for any particular disease. Many people claim that bone broth will heal digestive and gut issues – as well as ailments connected to gut health, such as depression. It is also said to be anti-inflammatory. Campbell-McBride developed a diet around bone broth called GAPS, short for gut and psychology syndrome1. In fact, I found an article warning about lead contamination in bone broth, since bones store heavy metals such as lead1.

While bone broth is a popularized trend that includes broth bars in New York City and its use as a staple in the Paleo diet, it is an old tradition spanning across many cultures around the globe1,2. Notably, bone broth is hailed as part of the Ayurvedic tradition. Ayurveda is a medical system that evolved in ancient India3. A friend of mine studied this system with an Ayurvedic teacher and told me about bone broth, which put it on my radar and subsequently onto my table.

In the past, I made vegetarian broth with vegetables, dried mushrooms, and even (organic) banana peels. Now, I use beef bones (from organic, grass fed beef) – other recipes include chicken or fish bones – along with vegetables (carrots, onions, garlic, celery, turnips, kale stems, fresh herbs like nettles or rosemary, dried mushrooms, and other organic vegetable scraps). Also, for added minerals, Dr. Mercola suggests to add parsley toward the end of the cooking process4. The broth contains a thick layer of fat and is collagenous. A cup or two of broth can be a substantial snack, breakfast, or addition to lunch/dinner. At first, the taste can be strong but adding salt and/or a little bit of miso paste will make it palatable.

You should know, it takes some planning to incorporate homemade broth into your daily life, because it takes a lot time to cook. For me, making broth has become a weekend ritual. Some basic tips can help to facilitate the process:

  • buy bones in bulk and store in the freezer;
  • keep an on-going bag of vegetable scraps in the freeze to utilize in broth;
  • use a crockpot so the broth can simmer even while you are not home.

The process:

  • Add all of the ingredients into a pot with a little bit of vinegar, which is used to draw minerals from the bones;
  • Bring to a boil;
  • Scoop off any foam/sediment;
  • Transfer into the crock pot, keep on low, covered for 24 – 72 hours;
  • Cool down slightly and strain through a piece of cheesecloth into a clean mason jar;
  • The broth may be kept in the refrigerator for up to one week or in the freezer for longer.

Despite the lack of scientific evidence that it treats or cures disease, it undoubtedly delivers nutrients and minerals to the body4. To me, it warms the digestive system. And, it just feels good!

Sources:
  1. Flora, G., Gupta, D., & Tiwari, A. (2012). Toxicity of lead: a review with recent updates. Interdisciplinary toxicology, 5(2), 47-58.
  2. Julia Moskin (2015). Retrieved from: https://www.nytimes.com/2015/01/07/dining/bone-broth-evolves-from-prehistoric-food-to-paleo-drink.html
  3. Narayanaswamy, V. (1981). Origin and development of ayurveda:(a brief history). Ancient science of life, 1(1), 1.
  4. Mercola (2017). Retrieved from: https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2017/02/20/how-to-make-bone-broth.aspx
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Bookmark

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As summer comes to a close and I prepare to begin graduate school, I write this post to put a bookmark on this chapter of my blog. Both my journey with plants and my passion for well-being inspired this blog, while both continue to be core values for me, I have a lot to focus on with school. I hope to write more in the future, but for now, I am focusing on what is directly in front of me.

I am inspired on my journey and humbled into graciousness. One of my favorite astrologer’s, Kaypacha, noted this week that (1) change takes time, the ‘new paradigm’ will not be birthed tomorrow, but rather the process is part of being the change and (2) we are not here to manifest a paradigm shift alone, we are here to connect with others and to open our hearts. Thank you to everyone who read my posts over these few years, you’ve made me feel more connected!

This summer was an incredible journey in itself. I have learned about a lot of new plants local to the Southern Appalachians, where I continue to root down and to build my home. As life in this society increases in pace and buildings and roads encroach on natural space, I hope we remember to stop often, to appreciate all the natural areas we have, to scale back consumption, and to open our hearts to the emotional space of being human.

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Image from Botanical.com

Yarrow (Achillae millefolium) is coming up as a noteworthy plant to mention here, now. Various species of yarrow grow wild throughout the world. It is a low-growing herbaceous plant with white umble flowers (although, it is actually an Aster). The plant and flowers are used in treating deep wounds, as an antiseptic, to clean gums, to aid varicose veins, to strengthen blood vessels, and fluid movement throughout the body. The tincture of Yarrow is included in my first aid kit as it is used first for wounds. In addition to its heroic and similarly tonifying qualities, Yarrow is used energetically either in small (spirit) doses (1-2 drop) or as a flower essence. The essence of yarrow is for psychic protection from overwhelming social situations, from environmental toxins and radiation, from over-extending yourself and to remind oneself where your own boundaries stop and another begins. This quality may help someone in differentiating the Self in a relationship.

This is a reminder that we must maintain our own boundaries to care for ourselves. It is too easy to get lost in work, interpersonal problems, or political dramas and to forget our own inner emotional world and our own needs for physical healing. This attentiveness to ourselves is central to the maintenance of well-being, I believe. While this is the foundation, we all need others to help us on our own journeys and community to support the maintenance of health and healing. As I enter into a new community at graduate school, I am saying ‘see you later’ to all of the readers of The Weekly Apothecary. Thank you!

 

 

Rare Plants and Diversity

For any plant lover, finding exotic and rare plant species may be the most exciting part of one’s day! Today, I found a wild orchid: Cypripedium acaule. In North Carolina, there are a number of native, terrestrial orchids where the orchids grow with their roots in the ground. Mostly, orchids are epiphytes, because they grow on a substrate like rocks or tree bark, with their roots exposed to the air. The roots have a special coating called velamen to keep in moisture.

 

The topic of rare plant species is coming up a lot recently in part because it is spring and plant life is waking up. Also because one of my classes this semester is focusing on an endemic and threatened plant species. This plant, which I recently met although not yet flowering, is Hudsonia montana (Mountain Golden Heather). Hudsonia montana is only found within two counties in North Carolina, and no where else in the world. (Albeit, other species of Hudsonia are found elsewhere in the world.) Hudsonia montana has a very specific habitat; it only grows on rocky outcrops, in higher elevations, and largely depends on wild fires to spread. This species in in danger in part because wildfires are less common in its habitat and people tend to trample this low-lying subshrub.

hudsonia

The orchid, Cypripedium acaule, was found in a tract of woods nestled between an interstate highway and a local busy road. The location of the Hudsonia montana is within designated wilderness area where there is nothing but mountains in all directions. The stark difference between the sightings of these native plants is indicative of the importance of ALL natural areas. Despite proximity to human activity, all natural areas may provide habitat and refuge for rare and threatened species.

Natural habitat is everywhere.  Not only do we need a focus on wilderness conservation, but also effort to conserve, to respect, to tend to the natural world in our own backyards, wherever we live. In a way, a single flower blooming among traffic is even more appreciated than the threatened shrub that people trample on when they drive for hours to arrive at the wilderness.

A diversity of plant life contributes to the biodiversity of our local ecosystems. When looking at diversity, we can look on so many different levels, from microbe diversity to human diversity. To the impassioned botanist, it goes without saying that we should respect, value, and protect native and threatened plant species. But most people may not understand why this is important, or why a plant sighting would make someone’s day. Well, biodiversity is essential to the longevity and the health of an ecosystem, of which humans are a part. For example, within the healthy human gut lining is found multiple species of bacteria, which function to maintain immunity, digestion, and emotional balance. Within a natural ecosystem, flowers have a mutualistic relationship with pollinators, so certain insects may rely on specific plants. Also, the genetic diversity of a plant population depends on large populations. These rare plants have a bigger role in our natural world, and in our backyards, than we may realize on a daily basis. I challenge you to learn a new plant in your backyard and to think about reasons why plant life may be important to protect.

“Cold” Season

mandala, art, healing, play, ball, drawing
Image Cited

I recently had to battle the common cold! I felt the cold itself moving around my upper respiratory tract, from my nasal cavities and sinus, to my throat and chest. So many people experience the common cold and during “cold season” this bug circulates around small communities on a daily basis like wildfire.

What do you do when you feel yourself getting sick, or suddenly find yourself completely ill?

So much emphasis in holistic medicine is on prevention. Not prevention in the sense of a flu shot, but prevention in the sense of nutrition building so that your body can be ready to fight when it needs to (ie: the immune system defense). Most of the time when I ‘catch the common cold,’ I am completely stressed out, overworked, and full of stress hormones. Then, there is an emotional component attached to the state of being sick.

Catching a cold provokes blameful thoughts like, “I did everything to prevent this…how did I get sick?!” But this always challenges me to slow down, to listen to what my needs are, and to address them. It’s as if your body is saying, no, I need rest.

In the herbal community, we are encouraged to pay close attention to our body’s responses and symptoms. For example, if you have a cough, know everything about the cough. Is it a dry cough or a cough where you’re expelling mucus? Simple clues are important to help you to choose which remedies will help. Also, knowing these clues will help your care provider in treating you as well, not only with seasonal issues (as those are mostly cured with rest and nutrition) but also with other ailments. I think that this is the root of “being you own doctor.”

My friend shared a healing story where she caught strep throat and healed it through eating only nourishing soup for a number of days. In the soup she put: garlic, bok choy, mushrooms, onion. When I am sick I focus on ingesting high amounts of nutrients: vitamin C, garlic, honey, hot herbal infusions, chicken soup, and miso. I know that we all have our own ways of coping with the common cold, or other seasonal illnesses, please feel free to share some tips!

Food: the thing that keeps you going

I’m not sure what the dictionary definition of Winter Break is, but I have a suspicion that it goes something like: time to rest, reprieve, regroup, and recover.

As I use this time to catch up with myself, one of my main focuses is developing a meal planning strategy for the upcoming semester. It takes a lot of food energy to keep going during the semester. More than calories, it is so essential to maintain a balanced diet so that the body system can be supported to function properly and to avoid sickness and sluggishness.

My sister told me about a book called Good and Cheap by Leanne Brown. The book contains recipes for a $4 a day food stamps budget. This got me thinking because, while not on food stamps, this is my basic budget range for buying food each week.

Budget aside, my values for natural healing also tend to govern choices that I make when it comes to both purchasing and preparing food. I learned how to prepare whole meals from fresh and raw materials. Without a doubt it takes skill to transform a head of cabbage, a sack of onions, a bunch of kale, a pound of raw meat, and a gallon of water into a week’s worth of food.

It makes sense to me to eat whole foods, not because the grocery conglomerate is so hip, but because that is food in its most naked form. Raw materials are what come from the farm and these types of foods do not have corn, sugar, or hydrogen injected into them, for who-knows-what-reason. Looking at food as raw material deconstructs diet into the four basic chemically necessary macromolecules: lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and proteins.

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Photo Credit to J. Todd

But the sustenance part is the focus here. Digestion is a key player in mood stability, hormonal balance, immunity, the ability to handle stress, and to adapt to environmental changes. So, with budget and well-being in mind, I am preparing meal ideas with the help of some stellar resources including (and not limited to): Dr. Christopher’s The School of Natural Healing and The Moosewood Collective’s Moosewood Restaurant Daily Special.

Some highlights include: homemade mayonnaise, freshly prepared soup stock, raw salads with basic vegetable combinations, freshly baked breads and biscuits. Basic combinations offered by Dr. Christopher include: carrots, raisins, and celery; cauliflower, peas, parsley; apples, celery, parsley; cabbage, celery, onions, olives. One cooking tip is that you can make variations to salads with the way in which you chop the vegetables, for example: shredding versus dicing or finely chopping.

Garlic stock from the Moosewood Collective contains: fresh garlic cloves, bay leaves, peppercorns, potatoes, celery, carrots, thyme, and parsley. Another tip is that if you need some quick protein and buy a rotisserie chicken from the grocery store, use the carcass to make chicken stock by throwing in all kinds of vegetable scraps (potato peels, dried mushrooms, carrots, celery, onion skins, and dried herbs of all kinds). Stocks like this contain nutrients essential for your sustenance; just add rice and some fresh kale and miso paste (fermented soy)…. May the SOUP be with you.

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Garlic (Allium sativum) Photo Credit: http://www.prodifact.com/1allium-sativum.html

Aloe vera

 

These images are almost as soothing as Aloe vera itself! When I look at this plant I feel relieved.  The juice inside of this succulent is perfect for applying to burns and to dry skin. It also may be taken internally (although I’m not sure of the preparation of this, Aloe vera drinks are readily available), to help with gut issues.  One tip is that you can harvest an entire Aloe rind and put it in the freezer for later use.  It’s helpful to have this in the kitchen since it’s easy to reach for if your skin gets burned.  Another tip about growing Aloe in a container is that it does not to be watered frequently.  Since it’s a succulent, Aloe uses water very efficiently and can be watered twice a month, or every two weeks, only when the soil through the container is dry.  Happy Aloe!

Flowers in a Winter greenhouse

Clerodendrum thomsoniae

The common name for this place is Bleeding Heart Vine.  The flower of this plant is a common flower essence used in healing one’s heart.  The essence is said to help to differentiate ones own emotions from others or to mend relationships that diminish ones own integrity.  Of course a few days after I took these picture, the flower opened up and the stamen popped out, ready to reproduce!  So delicate and intimate to witness the subtle transition of the plant.  Clerodendrum thomsoniae is native to West Africa.